PUBLISHED MONTHLY RICE J NTY CEN

BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OOF ART

VoLuME XXXIV NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER, 1930 NUMBER ©

ALLEGORICAL RELIEF MADE BY FRANCOIS GIRARDON FOR THI MONUMENT OF ANNE MARIE MARTINOZZI1 PRINCESSE DE CONTI

BULLETIN OF THI METROPOLITAN MUSEUM Ot

SEPTEMBER

\R I 1939

VOLUME XXXIV, NUMBER Q

COPYRIGHI 1939, BY

[THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI

Published monthly under the direction of the Metropolitan nu Fighty-second Y.; Winifred Ek. Howe, Editor ent to all Members of the Museum

Museum of Art New

Street

without

harge; to others upon receipt of the subscription price, two dollars vear, single copies twenty ents. Copi ire for sale and subscriptions art

Mai orders shou Viuse um

taken at the Information Desk

De addressed to the Secretary of the entered Ss Second ( iss Matter June 12 the Post Office, New York, N. ¥., under Act \ugust 24 CONTENTS Cover Illustration \llegorical Relret

by Francois Girardon 205

\n Exhibition of Turkish Textiles 200 Phe Lecture Program: Part 1, October January 208 Department of Educational Work Study Hours on Color and Desi Lite in America 210 \ French Crusader’s Sword Pommel 21 Recent Acquisitions of French Sculp- ture 213

Some Late Helladic Gilt’ Terracottas 210 Notes 217

\ Painting on Glass— Publication Note greenwich House Potters Lectures and Talks for Members 210 Exhibitions 219

AN EXHIBITION OF TURKISH TEXTILES

\ representative group of brocaded silks and velvets and embroideries of the Otto- man period has been chosen out of the per- manent collection of the Museum to torm an exhibition of Turkish textiles, on view in Gallery E 15 from September 9 through October 22. The woven materials displaved date from the sixteenth centuries and the earl eenth, while the embroideries are somewhat the end of the

and seventeenth

part of the eight-

later, dating trom seven-

200

nineteenth

the century. Al] these textiles, whether woven or embroid- common, that their decoration is almost exclusively floral. Over

teenth into

ered, have this. in the main patterns, themselves composed ot conventionalized floral forms, are scattered so-called “‘ Turkish flowers”

hvacinths

the smaller TOSeS

and found so gener-

carnations tulips branches of fruit blossoms ally in Turkish art

[he wealth and splendor and the love of display of the court of the Ottoman sultans are Well attested by the treasures the Museum. ot

the former imperial palace in Con-

of Turkey preserved in lopkapu Saray stantinople. Not the least of these treasures

are the magnificent hangings and the many

garments rich in gold and silver brocade worn by the sultans and their families

Brusa, the capital of the empire in the early Was a center ol

part of the period great

Weaving, and the industry was also carried on in Scutar! and Hereke

and stif former were

Some of the velvets are heavy thers are soft and supple. The used chiefly as hangings, curtains, or divan but to have been made of them as well as of the

cushion covers, coats and robes seem

more pliable fabrics. Crimson was the pre- although now then

j

dominating color and

green or soft brown was used, with the pat-

tern in gold or silver brocade or in white

satin. Details were woven in green, blue and vellow velvet or satin. Strong Italian and Persian influence is evident in_ the

decoration of the

schemes and motives ol

early textiles, but by the end of the six-

teenth century the designs had become un mistakably Turkish in character On most of the sixteenth-century velvets

curved,

great, sweeping ogival bands or pointed leaves enclose either some form ol the pomegranate-artichoke motive or a fan-shaped palmette based on the carna- tion, as in the illustration. Designs com-

posed of the ancient devices of three balls

and tiger stripes are also frequent. [hese last motives are believed to have been brought by the Turks from Central Asta and there is evidence that they may have

been reserved for materials used for the

garments of the sultans

Repeating patterns of large rosettes,

BULLETIN OF THI

roundels, or carnation palmettes were the rule in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- although the sixteenth-century de- continued—their boldness gradually the seven-

turies signs diminishing. An teenth century was the weaving of borders

Innovation in

as integral parts of materials intended for special purposes, such as covers for cushions or divans

Ihe same colors were used in the beauti-

METROPOLITAN Ml

SEUM OF ARI

of religious inscriptions form a particular

They were used especiall\

class of textiles as coverings over the sarcophagi of sultans and other eminent personages in_ the mosques

Unlike

made in factories in ¢

the woven fabrics, which were

i few localities, most ol

the Turkish embroideries were made by the

women of the harems, all over the country

If we compare the rich velvets and brocade

BROCADED VELVET

fully woven brocaded silks as in the velvets

with a few additions. But gold and silver threads cover so much of their surface that the red, blue background ts entirely secondary the

velvets

green, or purple satin of the The deco brocades are

used In the

schemes varied than in frames form pointed oval medallions, ser-

rative

more Ogival

rated leaves and flowers enclose palmettes

wavy stems bear large leaves or flowers which branch off alternately right and lett Variations of the three balls and tiger

stripes also occur

Satins with woven or embroidered bands

ae 20

XVI CENTURY

RKISH

]

to paintings In oi, turning to

broideries is ike coming

colors. Their beauty and exqu

Watel workmanship were remarked on by traveler

even in the sixteenth century. Bedspreads

kerchiefs, and various kinds

table cloths

covers were made of loosely woven linen or

linen mixtures or of tatfeta, satin, or cash

mere. Towels were made of a more closel\

woven linen or of cotton. The embroidery

silks, sometimes

| was worked in polychrome brilliant

in clear and colors, sometimes in

pastel shades enriched with metal thread

and for the most part in double running

BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITA

N MUSEUM OF ARI

n tches ¢ final paragraph). On Mondavs at 2 p.m | n e embroidered piece ilso beginning November 6, Mr. Shaw will vert ( es for the ver ostl ve a series of talks on the architecture and elvel 1 br heir | C1 ir culpture of the Athenian Acropolis. In

\ ten Januar at the same hour, Mr. Busselle nes found on the woven fabrics. Other will give tour talks on the Dutch in \merica ree and sn ove! ve all-over desigt On Fridays at 12 o'clock, beginning Novem- ) il branche ly roses. Some « ver 3, Miss Bradish and Mr. Grier will the ove! in he } erable vels race the development of tapestry weaving isi ind kKercniel ( i t from. Coptic prototypes to the eighteenth- traveler in the Near East have embroiders century products of the Beauvais looms orders, gene ly ot rose branches or of the n le-and Dress | ern Or it PUBLIE H HE. McAui it Lectures and gallery talks are offered free to the public daily except Mondays and Fridays. Beginning the first week in Novem- LT | | ( 1 | IX | PIR KW ZRANM Der llustrated lectures by ny ted speakers PART I. OCTOBER—JTANUARY are given at 4 o'clock on each Saturday and : Sunda l hose who have not spoken before DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL WORK in these series are Marshall B. Davidson Phe Lecture Program issued this montl Assistant Curator of The American Wing he gallery talks and lectures that will Ne'son Glueck, Director of the American be given from October through January School of Oriental Research in Jerusalen Phroughout the vear the instructors in the Meta Harrsen of The Pierpont Morgan lepartment alsomeetindly duals and groups Library: Richard Krauthermer ot Vassar A hing spe i} ecuidance. Durit rthe twelve College: Henri Marceau, Assistant Director months ending July 31, 1939, 0.029 visitors tt the Philadelphia Museum of Art; John vailed themsel ve this servic ind McAndrew, Curator of Architecture and 33.302 attended the announced talks he Industrial Art, The Museum of Modern 45 lectures given by invited speakers had Art: Benjamin D. Meritt of the School of an attendance of 7,450 Humanistic Studies, Institute for Advanced Fhe Program is in three sections: one Study; Stephen H. P. Pell, Director of the dealing with the special courses for Mem- Fort Ticonderoga Museum; and Karl With

bers, another with the talks for the general

public, and the third with the series of lec and Inc tures and gallery talks for teachers and tos, Dir

of the \

pupils of the public schools of the city

ICCEPTLEK

For MEMBER Wednes Mr. Rorimer, Curator of the Department subject

of Mediaeval Art and The Cloisters, will =omopvlac }

former]

vy Director of the Museum of Art dustry, Cologne. Spvridon Marina ector of the Archaeological Section linistry of Education of Greece, has 1 an invitation to give a lecture on day October 25,al 4 oO’ clo. k, his

being Recent Excavations at I her-

give two illustrated talks at The Cloisters On Saturdays from tt a.m. to 12:40 p.m

Ihe Provenance of Objects in The Clots beginnit ters, on November 6, and The Restoration give a

of Mediaeval Sculpture, on November 13 ancient Five courses are offered at the main build- = backgro

ing. On Mondays at 11:30 a.m., beginning

1

1 September 30, Mr. Taggart will series of fourteen lectures on the Eeyvptians, designed to furnish a

4 ¢} j

und for the study of the daily hfe

of the people. Three short courses will be

November 6, Miss Duncan will survey the = given on Saturdavs at 2 p.m., beginning

art of the Near East, starting with ancient = October Assvria, Babylonia, and Persia and then taking up the Muhammadan and Coptic periods. This course will be followed by four =the Age talks on Spanish painting by Mrs. Colcord

Q

20

Constab

7, and repeated at the same hour

m Sundays: Landscape from Van Evck to

le, by Mrs. Fansler; Glass through ‘ss by Miss Bradish; and Greek

Sculpture, by Mr. Shaw. On Sundays at

BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI

2:30 p.m., beginning October 1, a survey of 12,992 pupils were given talks by the staff the collections will be offered in a series ol of the department

gallery talks by various members of the

staff. This survey, which continues through Edith R. Abbot, Senior Instructor, has May, 1940, will be repeated on Wednesdays been granted a four months’ leave of ab at 11 a.m. On two Saturday afternoons sence. Mrs. Colcord, who as Miss Alice

I Octok

yer 21 and December 9, Jane B. Walker © Coseo was formerly on the staff of instruc- will give illustrated talks for the deafened tors, will serve in her stead

who read the lips HuGer ELLtiot

\ number ol short courses are offered on

Wednesdavs and Thursdavs. These are StubyY Hours ON COLOR AND DESIGN Oriental Pottery and Porcelain, and Illus- In its twenty-third annual series of Stud trated Books of the East, by Miss Duncan; Hours on Coor and Design the Museun Continental Furniture, by Miss Bradish; will offer for the seaso1i 1939 1940 seven and European Painting of the XVIII Cen- 9 courses of demonstration lectures and gal- turv, by Mrs. Fansler. The Survey of the lery talks, some arranged as general lecture

Collections, given on Wednesdavs, has al- sequences running through an entire term ready been mentioned and others as short courses or groups \s is customary, General Tours of vari- lectures on specific subjects ous sections of the Museum galleries art During the first term, September through esiven on lTuesdavs, Wednesdavs, and January, one course on Sundays and thre Thursdays to introduce the collections to © on weekdays will be given for the publi new visitors. A number of supplementar' two special weekday courses for Museun talks are listed for October both at the Members will be otfered, and one course main building and at [he Cloisters, con will be available for teachers in New York tinuing the series begun in Mav especially schools, this last being one of the approved for the benefit of out-of-town visitors to the courses for teachers desiring credit tow World’s Fan advancement under the regulations of the Board of Education For PREACHERS AND PUPILS OF THE PUBLI (he Sundav course for the public giver SCHOOL three o clock will deal, in several groups ot lhree lecture courses, for which credit ts talks, with the elements of design, histori otfered by the College of the Citv of New stvles in modern decoration, including the York, are given for the teachers of the pub- early American stvle, and contemporar lic schools of the citv. One of these. The lesion. A number of specialists not on the \ncient Egyptians, is mentioned in’ an statf of the Museum will speak in this seri earlier paragraph, since it Is Open to the under the provisions of the Gillender Fun public also. The others are American His a beguest to the Museum financing | re tory and Art, by Mr. Busselle, and The for the benefit of peopl ngaged inc! Study of Paintings, by Mrs. Fansler. In) demanding artistic stud) he Gillen these, as in the first, emphasis ts laid on the lectures are also open to the general pub value of Museum study as an ald in class- On Tuesday mornings t eleven. ther room worl will be giver ill-teri rse ( Lists of the talks offered for the pupils of | Study, and on Tuesd fternoot the high schools and the e!'ementaryv and full-term course on Design e Thur junior high schools of the city are printed afternoon course. also at three o’cl \ n the Program. In these talks the various be composed of groups of lecture collections of the Museum are graphicall the Desig In related to school subjects—histor lan Design of Textile n Dr euages, literatur ind so on. Sometime (Ceramics Ol ot the gallere ire prefaced by bri I he OUTS r M ( | ks illustrated by lantern slides or motion 3230 p.l \ I ) In the idem eal ()3> Orzo thy , ;

BULLETIN ‘OF THE METR(

ati CINE | | mit v4 1 ree GIs on and | S pr ( \ CESSs 1 Vien CTs re roll mine rder ol appl mon and are advised to write prompt pon receipt of their cop he | i? Py rai @ reserve p CS at roup Of roups the pret he roups will de \\ color { ( scheme nd in Periors I he by } UT SE I VMiembers

In these Study

to discover the principtes o the elements of color in objects from. the collections and supplementary material o rrent production arranged as spe plavs in the lecture followed by onducted gallery visits. to examine numerous other ex. mp/es in whic! the same

reveal themselves

Put BULLETIN takes pleasure in] the following comment by James Truslow \dams upon the Museum’s current loan

Gal

exhibition of paintings

LIFE IN AMERICA

Among the various exhibits held in New York during the period of the World’s Fai for the benefit of citizens and visitors, the collection of nearly 300 oil paintings gathered by the Metropolitan Museum to illustrate American life is the most 1m- parts ol the

200 Vears ol portant. Drawn from many country and in many cases from ordinaril\ inaccessible private collections, it offers a unique opportunity to study our history through art, and | may say at once that | write as a historian and not as an art critk Most of us will never have a chance to see many of these pictures again, and the oc- casion should be made use of by as many as possible, not only adults interested in art and history but school children as well

MUSEUM OF ARI

ILITAN

History is a nation’s memory and serves

much the same purpose as memory does for

the individual

Without personal memory

d start life afresh each morning ;

we shoul iS helpless as babies: but memory, by recall- ng the episodes and experiences of the past

2 \t

personaity and character individual or a nation. For both, in

uch a process, the arts play a great part lhe individual has, or used to have, the velvet-covered photograph album, the attic

with old handed down, or the old barn with imple-

Stories

‘sand turniture, the

ments of a bygone day

Podav the nation has its museums with portraits and illustra- ons of scenes, its exhibits otf clothes, its volumes of history, and us collections of various sorts lilustrating the life of the past lhe ey important part in learning, and | think |

for the Histor

that to the old-fashioned

eis coming to p.dv a more and more

lo suggest

fnierican Life bibhography, consisting of titles of books

only, should be added the names of the many museums in which the things men- tioned in the books could actually be seen

lhis particular temporary exhibition, all

the more to be visited precisely because it 15

temporary, consists only of oil paintings

Which imposes certain limitations. In the early frontier stage of any country art Is generally considered an unnecessary if not a wholly impossible luxury. The story otf America is the storv of a thousand succes- sive frontiers In our march from the Atlantic across the three thousand miles of slowl, the Pacific. From

alter

conquered continent te the beginning, however, there were about 1630, certain families of wealth and culture who desired portraits, and these re- mained the chief form of pictorial art tor more than a centur\

Hemmed in by the Appalachian Moun- tain ranges and the French claims bevond, the colonies on the Atlantic seaboard de- veloped a distinct British provincial culture by the middle of the eighteenth century, and in 1757 the first exhibition of purely cotonial painting was held in New York City, in spite of the fact that old Jonathan Frumbull had warned his son, who wished to become an artist, to remember that

Published in 12 volumes by Macmillan

lor

Ory

ill-

BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART

“Connecticut is not Athens.” But a few vears later, after the French and Indian War and the crossing of the mountains, the endless western trek and the opening of new frontiers began. Matters other than art now seemed more compelling and important Even after the mid-nineteenth century we had a steady expatriation of artists, such as \bbev, Sargent, and Whistler. Expatriation of American artists and authors has ceased We have come of age aesthetically, and kuropeans now come to America to see our collections of both foreign and native art

lf | speak of the historical limitations of a collection Wholly made up of oil paintings 11 is only because, as a complete ple torial pres entation of the American scene, | miss the long series of prints by Currier & Ives, the early woodcuts in books on America, and the illustrations by various methods of our great period of the 1890's, among others

It is, nevertheless, extraordinary to find, in spite of all the handicaps of early genera- tions, how much has here been gathered to depict in oils the continuous story of the growth of America. The long line of por- traits, from the beginning, of all types statesmen, clergymen, frontiersmen, In- dians, inventors, artists, authors, business- men, and others—would in itself constitute a history of the nation from the biographi- cal approach, and many of these the public may never see again. If school children, to say nothing of their elders, were taken through the exhibition and told who these people were and what they did, it would be as good and vivid an introduction to the range and variety of American life and ac complishment as could be imagined. In a short article it is impossible to note indi- vidual pictures, which may be studied in advance in the catalogue, but in addition to the portraits there are an amazing lot of pictures which light up other aspects of our past, lor example those showing costume early school life, wavs of life—such as a country fair, a country store, whaling scouting and frontier life, the methods ot going West by boat and prairie schooner mining, negro life, the Civil War, the Texas Rangers, architecture of various periods the first transcontinental railway, the age of the bison, and many others

\lthough | have never taught, | have thought ot the collection to some extent from the standpoint of the school teacher and it seems to me that taking children to careful study of the

catalogue, would give them a_ peculiarly

see the pictures, after

living relation to our past

Some day | should like to see in the Mu seum a collection ot pictures ol all sorts, in cluding photographs and all other media which would make an Epic of America for the eve and would be permanent, like | he \merican Wing for rooms and furniture But meanwhile, for a short time, until Octo ber 29, we have this, which should not be JAMES TRUSLOW ADAMS.

A FRENCH CRUSADER’S SWORD POMME!I

{

Louis Joseph Cartier, of Paris, in token he French and

of the trendship between t \merican peoples has presented to the Mu seum a French thirteenth-century sword pommel bearing in enamel the heraldic arms of Peter of Dreux (about 1190-1250), Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond and crusader with Louis IX (Saint Louts) ot France

Any object associated with a crusader creates Immediate interest. Peter of Dreux great-grandson of Louis VI of France, held the county of Brittany as guardian for his minor son and also the great English barons of Richmond, of which the Breton dukes were lords by inheritance. [he geographical position of Brittany gave Peter an impor tant part to play in the struggle between the Plantagenet and Capetian monarchies In practice he alternated his allegiance from one side to the other as occasion suited his interests. [Though he was nicknamed Mauclerc because of the brutality with which he treated the Breton clergy and though he spent a large part of his life under excommunication, he and his family are immortalized in the stained-glass windows of the south transept of the cathedral of Chartres. He 1s also depicted in a neighbor ing bav. mounted in full armor with sword

shield, and lance. In his tomb effigy in the

Acc. no. 38.60. Shown this mor

Room of Recent Accessions

BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI

r \ \ ed Br me I r SOs el Wear i sword th pomme I I l rms perl Ss nme VeT ! ( ( n this article Our pommel is enriched with champleve TT1¢ POOVES I ne Vitreous colors eImMnyg CNanne ed In the copper base. On the erst ppears the shield o rms ot Pete Yeux, Duke of Brittan alternate res of blue and gold (designating the

se of Dreux) quartered with ermines

nes, probably tyvpifving Christ. Colored enamels were, of course, ideal for showing heraldic arms. In the present instance, how- ever, the enamels no longer retain then brilhant hues or their original high luster Here and there are small flecks of gold which show that originally the surface was eilded. The enameling was first) accom plished and then the mercury gilding, which required less heat than the tusion of the flux. A soft enamel was used, and the atmos phere has caused the surface to decompose \ hard enamel would have been more sus ceptible to chipping during the cooling

followed the gilding

process Which

Ss pommel ts an early example of the

rv, for mediaeval coats of arms had their origin in the practical necessities of war. They date from the introduction about 1180, of the closed helm (like that worn by Peter of Dreux in the equestrian

which rendered dis-

tinguishing devices indispensable for the recognition of leaders on the battlefield Pommels were also engraved with war cries or with the Knight's seal, and sometimes contained a relic. Since our pommel ts o Breton origin, it is perhaps appropriate to mention three swords with armorial pom-

lusée Dobrée at Nantes. One

KI \, OBVERSE AND REVERSI

bears the arms of the Sire du) Mourant;: another, the three leopards of England: and the third, the arms of the Dauphin ot France, later Charles \

\ small piece of the iron tang of the blade, which runs through our pommel, pro- jects through its lower edge. It is from the tang that the pommel itself originally de-

{

veloped, for the end of this stem of metal was beaten out to prevent the material oti The

pommel had three main purposes—to pre

which tormed the grip from tallin

IS

vent the hand from s'ipping, to balance the blade, and to “‘pumme! or strike, an ypponent. Great ingenutt Was shown In the design and execution of sword pomme!s is may be seen on the arms in the Mu-

eum’s collection. Not only iron, but silver,

bronze, tvory, rock crystal, porphvry, and sardonyvx are included in the materials uti- ed, an ilpture, engraving, gilding nd

ms

BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART

inlay are variously emploved in the decora- = background, probably a funerary monu tion ment. A search tor analogies immediatel

[he present pommel was bought in Da brings to mind the famous tomb of Henri I] mascus about ten vears ago. One can readily and Catherine de Medicis in the basilica at

surmise how it got there. Peter, a highly capable captain, was wounded at the battle of Mansourah as he fought side by side with Robert of Artois, the Master of the lem plars, and was taken prisoner by the Turks with King Louts and most of the crusading barons. The Sire de Joinville gives a vivid account of Peter’s activities in his famous

chronicle STEPHEN V. GRANCSAY

RECENT ACOUISITTIONS OF FRENCH SCULPTURI

Iwo outstanding examples of French ture, both of them of tvpes difficult to come by today, have been purchased by tl

Museum and are shown this month in the Room of Recent Accessions. [he earlier ot these two sculptures, a standing svmbol

igure! of a semidraped woman holding a

Valight brown

palm frond,? is of bronze wit transparent patina | he feure has no earl | yor has the identity of the scu

been definitery established. It dates presum

stor

ably between 1560 and 1570. The other sculpture, a high relief in white marble of a heavily draped seated woman, * is known to

be by Frangois Girardon (1028-17

15) and has a long and interesting history. It was made between 1072 and 1075. Aside from their individual importance, the two figures IN jUXtaposition present an illuminating illustration of the difference in treatment ot allegorical figures in two important periods of French sculpture approximate!y a cen tury apart

Let us look first at the earlier of these tw

Iptures (fig. 1). The figure is gracetull posed in the Italianate manner fostered in | rance by the so-called schoo! ol | ontaine

bleau. It is unfinished at the back and

open

thereby suggesting that it was designed t FRENCH. ABOUT (yy) 1 EO

Stand against some sort of architectural

BULLETIN QO} LHI METROPOLITAN MUSEUM O| ARI he Del mm ¢ Phe marble relief (on the cover) acquired Pris i thet he r by the Museum has, as we have noted. a rdue metho senoit Bo ( lhere contrastingly complete history. It was exe- n | | ( bronze Is « cuted as part of funerary Monument to pprox tel ( ' id the same \nne Marie Martinozzi, princesse de Conti | | Whether S ont hor niece of Cardinal Mazarin and Sister t WOSCU a de detinits scrmbed 1 law () the ( rand Conde This oreal lad HOT nother n er. SUK n ascrip 11¢ n 1072, and sometime between that youl irse, be very desirable or m late and 1075 Ner sons entrusted to Gilrar- ne, with the possible exception of Je: don the execution ot monument to be e n, ranks higher in the anna tl renel erected to her memory in the church of renalssal culpture Saint-Andreé-des-Arts in) Paris. The com- lhe figure on the mit Saint-Den mission was carried out, and the monument Which presents the closest analogy to ours Is was placed against one of the pillars in the that symbolizing Justice. There are several choir, where it remained until the davs of triking points of similarity in pose. The the Revolution. While still in place it was lett leg, for instances Ss crossed in tront ¢ drawn by René Charpentier (16080 1723 the right, which bears the weight of the me of Girardon’s pupils. An engraving (fig body, and the nght hip is thereby thrown which reproduces this drawing in reverse nto exaggerated prominence; the left arm shows certain differences between the alle- s raised, the hand, with its long tapering eorical figure as It was originally and as it fingers, being held against the tors the exists today head is turned to the left and the glance Is In 1793 the entire monument was re- rected downward. Furthermore, in both moved trom the church and _ transterred cases, the hair is braided and set off by an under the direction of Alexandre Lenoir, to elaborate tiara, and the features have a cet the Musée des monuments frangais for safe- tain period resemblance. But here the more keeping. There it) remained until 1807,

conspicuous similarities end. The figure o

Justice has throughout much more move-

ment than the Museum’s bronze carefully

ind the Lhe frapery in particular is conceived in a full

details are more modeled luxuriant Manner prophetic of the baroque

whereas the draperv of our bronze echoes the simpler, more clinging lines of its classi al The other the tomb have less In common with ours, and it difficult

Lo

inspiration figures on

alter

con-

becomes increasingl\

sidering Pilon’s other works justify tk anv thing

Nor IS il

yassoclate the

attribution to him on a basis ot short documentary evidence possible at the present time t \Viuseum’s bronze definitely with anv other n France in the second hall

| Ol

sculptor active | [he distinction of however, and it

f the sixteenth century the bronze is undeniable

would be difficult to find a sculpture more completely in the spirit of the period

1. Babelon, Germain Pilon (Paris 1927), p 50

Louis Réau Ln Chef d’quvre retrouvé de Germain Pilon MS. in the possession of the

Metropolitan Museun

When, at the request of the Empress Jose- phine, the allegorical figure was sent to Malmaison as a decoration for the park The alterations date from this time. The

anchor, symbol of Hope, was partly cut AW AN laming heart, svmbol of Faith, was miracu-

poppy \s a

partly transformed into drapery ; the

{ ! lously transtormed into a re-

sult of these changes, the figure, when sent to Malmaison, was described as “‘le petit monument de la Mélancolie.”’® After the

fall of the First Empire in 1815 Malmaison

passed to a succession of owners

and portions of the park were parceled off

private

With one of these parcels went the figure of ‘la Mélancolie,” and it appears to have remained in place until 1884, when it was lent to the museum of the Union centrale in’ Paris, better known as the Musée des arts décoratifs. It remained in this museum until 1890 and

des arts décoratits now

then removed by the Parent family,

who owned it, to their villa at Varengeville-

Was

sur-Mer, near Dieppe. There in 1909 it was

hives du Muse les monument rancals

BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART

auctioned otf to Georges Bernard, who, in turn, lent it in 1937 to the Exposition des s-d’ceuvre de Vart frangais.? It) then

che passed into the hands of the antiquar\y from whom it was acquired by this Mu- seum

Girardon is, of course, one of the two great names in French sculpture of the period of Louis XTV, the other being Covse- vox. Such examples of Girardon’s work as still exist are almost without exception public or church property in France and are zealously guarded as part of the artistic heritage of the nation. Owing principally to the fact that he is virtually unrepresented in private collections it Was found imposst- ble to include any example of his work in the Exhibition of French Painting and Sculpture of the NVIITT Century held in this Museum in 1935

Ihe reef may be regarded as a typical example of Girardon’s stvle. Female figures swathed from head to foot in ample drap- eries are to be found elsewhere in his work Phe oval medallion of the Virgin (Musée du Louvre),’ executed in 10657 as his “morceau de reception a [’Académie.”” 1s) similarly treated. The figures of Faith and Piety, especially the latter, on the Castellan tomb church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés)," exe- cuted in 16078, bear a close resemblance to ours. [he mourning figures on the tomb ot Cardinal Richelieu (Church of the Sor- bonne),!! executed between 16075 and 1094 continue the analogy. And finally the figure of the Virgin'? on Girardon’s own tomb (church of Sainte- Marguerite), executed be- tween 1705 and 1709, Indicates that the sculptor favored this tvpe of draped figure to the very end of his career. We are fulls justified, therefore, in feeling that our relief offers the student a splendid opportunity t

observe the rare finesse and decorative sense which trequently characterize Girar-

don’s work If, one of these davs, the Vu-

Cat. no 1O4¢ * More detailed accounts are to be found in

articles by Louis Réauin La Revue del arta

et moderne (vol. xt1 [1922], pp. 34-48) and the Bulletin de la Société de Ubistoire de Uart fray (1921, pp. 08-74

P. Francastel, Grrardon (Paris, 1928), fig. 4

lbid., fig. 71

lbid figs. 37 3) lbid., fig

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FIG. 2. DETAIL OF AN ENGRAVING SHOWING

[HE CONTI MONUMENT N HE CHURCH OO}

SAIN T-ANDRE-DES-ARI

seum 1s fortunate enough to acquire

example of his portraiture, we may thet

regard the work of this great Frencl culp tor as being adequately represented in our collections Pri STON REMINGTON

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I LT TERRACOTTA VA ATE HELI DI lil ER 1) ace Bre A \ee I he ecWwell n he 1 f this period » general of an ve kind, made of gold pressed thin lass and bone covered with gold |e lass paste colored blue in imitation o iZ or even terracotta painted lhe recently acquired gilt-terracotta ice Consists, as now preserved, of th lentical rosettes and a pendant in f a conventionalized [il lhe rosettes ar pierced for two parallel strings; threaded on i sin | tring Ne would revolve ] hy unmanageabl \ necklace « hirt\v-six eold rosettes of th hape, made in two zes, Was toun ound the ne nd chest of a ng prince In a roval ton Dendra, with tl irger beads strung in thr \ Den. | D

tt {

naller at the ends. Rosettes of

middle, the sma den | shape appear on many mainland tt ncluding Asine, the Argive Heraion

Mycenae, and Menidi, and in the Kalvvia emetet t Phatstos in Crete.2. The lily vendant has two long petals turned back ito volutes and at the stem a boss with a

wle perforation tor stringing. It Is of ex-

i he same tabric as the rosette beads ind was covered with the same white earth: tvpe is the usual concomitant of the

| Hell } perlo a | I | ninno ention Zed I nen | Yaces Them na Ne Me lace vs Well-estal thy ln I I lt } Dect Whicl Nest Irround acct uetleo ig

them. [tis of si } | ;

W I gold le i

Was used @)

; ae a i

parently not 1

necklace the b

me Wishes to assume a black underpaint- ng), and warping has produced a coarse network of crackling in the gold leat lhe eilt rubs off easil owing its preservation \ ?erss ] ) ) a nee le 1,1 j \ <} y ss D aC) ( fig 252 < D » f 202 rt ( t }*) ( mbri r Q p ,O4 2 f J ( sO J \ 15) 2 1 (y88 \1 e ) { ) \/ babe! | Wee Ol \/ ) 1 ) Ti { { S Nir \r r | < j \/ 1 i (lLondor 2 p. 4h 10); ( \ e ut f | 207 : rOSt es Dp. 20

\ y |

1 »*) t t I it

re I

omb groups. The beads and

re belong together, though

In the composition shown in

Both tvpes are ubiquitous

{1 burials of the third Late though neither type ts vation ot this time,* the con- stvle of these ornaments de- rom their prototypes and rally in Late Helladie ITI het nove! but has ( ) xt In the tombs o se O we Mycenaean civill Weve OMpPANnte in

ittach 1:2

Nhe sani In the case of the | 1.) ] |

inder has turned black (unless

BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI

te apparently to the white earth in which it by the striped quadrupeds. It has, Ike ars was entolded The statuette has a finer them plain legs with preading tance; the crackle; the gilt presents a hard surface and body, however, is not a simple shaft lik aes though exposed to the weather has nowhere theirs, but is modeled with considerable at ae loosed its hold. The binder here is not black- tention to nature, and the horns are 1 bat ened, and is varnishlike.® The statuette has = mere curving spikes. The goat far more ore no trace of white earth, but has here and individual creation than the striped quad vie there a hard, closely adhering, crystalline